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Learning Goal: I’m working on a criminal justice writing question and need guida

by | Oct 10, 2021 | Criminal Justice | 0 comments

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Learning Goal: I’m working on a criminal justice writing question and need guidance to help me learn.Students will submit TWO Response Papers during the course. Response Paper #1 will reference content in Weeks 1-8 and Response Paper #2 will reference content in Weeks 9-14. For each Response Paper students will identify THREE topics covered during the relevant weeks that the student would like to explore further. Students should then write THREE 500-word brief essays related to those topics for each Response (1500 word total). Students must explore the topic using lecture materials, required readings and other relevant academic literature, as well as class discussions. CITATION IS A REQUIREMENT IN ALL ACADEMIC SETTINGS. PLEASE USE APPROPRIATE CITATION FORMAT IN ANY WORK. YOU MAY USE EITHER APA OR CHICAGO STYLE CITATION IN THIS COURSE. For essay #1 use this TRAUMA AND RECOVERY OF VICTIMSFor victims to recover from a traumatic event, like criminal victimization, it is crucial that they are provided with the proper support. Often victims will require immediate crisis intervention during the initial impact stage, along with support throughout the criminal justice process. Victim service providers, therefore, have to be trained and ready to deal with a variety of responses when trying to assist victims. This is because people respond to traumatic events differently. Criminal victimization is arguably experienced more seriously than an accident or similar misfortune, as it is difficult to accept that the suffering and loss being experienced is the result of the deliberate actions of another person (UNODCCP, 1999). The initial reactions following victimization may include shock, fear, anger, disorientation, helplessness, disbelief, and guilt (Norris & Krysztof, 1994; Shapland & Hall, 2007). These psychological, emotional, and social responses are normal reactions to such a traumatic event. Victims’ reactions depend on a number of factors: the context in which the victimization occurred, that is, the location of the incident, time of day it occurred, or the relationship to the offender; the victims’ coping styles; and their resources (National Center for Victims of Crime [NCVC], 2012). The psychological responses can be either short-term or long-term (Hanson, Sawyer, Begle, & Hubel, 2010); however, if such crisis intervention is not received, the long-term effects can greatly affect the victims’ recovery process. Trained victim service providers should inquire about the victims’ welfare by asking if they feel safe, assuring victims that they are safe if that is true, and determining if they are in need of medical attention. It is essential for victim service providers to have an understanding of the impact of victimization and the variety of reactions victims may experience in order to assist in their recovery (Peterson & Walker, 2003). A victim’s life may never be the same, but he or she can regain some form of control over his or her life and a sense of confidence (NCVC, 2012) For essay #2 USE this PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACT OF VICTIMIZATIONThe physiological reaction in response to a perceived harmful event, or when a person’s physical survival is threatened, is known as the flight-fight-or-freeze response (Barlow, 2002; Bracha, 2004; Schmidt, Richey, Zvolensky, & Maner, 2008). This response is triggered to assist in determining whether fleeing from the situation, fighting, or freezing increases the chances of survival. The freeze response is an added dimension to the more common flight-or-fight response. Freeze responses may occur when an individual perceives there to be little immediate chance of escaping or winning a fight or when immobility increases the chance of surviving (Schmidt et al., 2008). Simply knowing when to attack, flee, or freeze from situations that are perceived as harmful can be extremely complicated. Often the clarity of action to take is missing, for example, in situations such as domestic abuse or bullying (Peterson & Walker, 2003). Moreover, often stressors may be triggered by psychological events. For example, in response to victimization, frustrations in working with the criminal justice system, disruptions in life routines, and possible intrusions by the media may evoke both immediate and long-term reactions. Stress involves an intersection between psychological and physiological responses, the number of stressors faced today (i.e., pressure on the job, mortgage payments, children, health insurance) add to the varied reactions and coping styles of victims (Peterson & Walker, 2003; Regehr, LeBlanc, Barath, Balch, & Birze, 2013). What is good to know is that even with all the stressors facing each of us, better medication, nutrition, and counseling is available to help people live better lives. For essay #3 use this DEFINITIONS OF STRESS AND TRAUMATo better understand the trauma and recovery of victims, it is important to have the key concepts of stress and trauma defined, as these terms are often used interchangeably in the literature (Boss, 2002). Puleo and McGlothlin (2014) explain that in Western culture, the word stress is generally used to describe emotional reactions ranging from feelings of mild irritation and frustration to being overwhelmed with fear. Trauma typically refers to the damage done to the biopsychosocial world of the individual as the result of a stressor or multiple stressors (Peterson, 2003). While the definitions may seem rather obvious, they have important distinctions within the context of providing assistance to victims.StressFrom the biological perspective, stress is any demand made on a person that causes a reaction either biologically or psychologically. Stress causes changes in hormonal patterns, such as increased production of adrenalin and cortisol, which over time, may deplete the body’s energy resources, impair the immune system, and lead to illness (Dickerson & Kemeny, 2004; Puleo & McGlothlin, 2014). Everyone has some form of stress. Not all stress is bad stress, however. Some stress is needed for us to develop and even grow stronger. For example, working to solve a puzzle or problem is stressful but not overly so, and solving the puzzle or problem teaches individuals new ways to do things. Traveling is stressful but also exciting and enjoyable to many people. A good physical workout is stressful on the body but also enables us to feel good afterward and helps our bodies to grow stronger (Peterson & Walker, 2003).Stress: any demand made on a person that causes a reaction either biologically or psychologicallyHan Selye (1956) described two types of stress: (1) eustress, or positive stress, which is the result of changes in our environment that are perceived positively, and (2) distress, or negative stress, which is often harmful to the individual and caused by changes in the environment that are perceived negatively. Selye (1956) argued that distress tends to cause more biological damage to a person than eustress, which seemingly contributes to a person’s well-being. Therefore, how a person perceives stress has an effect on how he or she will adapt (Selye, 1956; Regehr, Hill, & Glancy, 2000). Psychological distress often results in an inability to cope with the demands or pressures around us, and if severe enough, can potentially lead to psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Regehr et al., 2000, 2013; Peterson & Walker, 2003).Stress is therefore defined as “the demand, either physically or psychologically, that is outside the norm and that signals a disparity between what is optimal and what actually exists” (Peterson & Walker, 2003, p. 68). It is a part of life, and it is normal and impossible to avoid. There are events that may take place in a person’s life that are stressful. Being injured in a skiing accident is stressful and so is losing your job; however, they are not the same types of stress and people respond differently in each situation, though some of the responses may overlap (Peterson & Walker, 2003). The degree of stress depends on the perceptions of, and meaning attributed to, the stressor event. Any form of stress has the potential to change some aspect of our life, but increased stress does not necessarily lead to a crisis. Often, stress is managed, and the individual or family can arrive at a new steady state (Jannoff-Bulman, 1992; Puleo & McGlothlin, 2014).TraumaStressors that involve trauma are powerful and overwhelming, and they threaten perceptions of safety and security (Puleo & McGlothlin, 2014). Trauma is therefore the result of severe distress and causes damage. Some stressors may be single incidents of relatively short duration, whereas others may occur over longer periods of time, resulting in prolonged exposure to the threatening stressor (Collins & Collins, 2005). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), a traumatic event involves the threatened or actual death or serious injury, or a threat to the well-being of oneself or to another person. Traumatic events may be human caused accidents or catastrophes, such as the Deepwater Horizon disaster which led to the largest oil spill in U.S. waters. An uncontrollable blowout caused an explosion on the oilrig that killed 11 crewmen and ignited a fireball visible from 40 miles away. The fire was inextinguishable, leading to the rig sinking and the well gushing at the seabed, affecting much of ocean life in the area. The multiple terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001; the Boston Marathon Bombing on Patriots Day, April 15, 2013; and mass shootings such as those at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, and the Pulse Club Shooting in Orlando, Florida, are all examples of acts of deliberate human actions, as are the numerous homicides and sexual assaults that occur in the United States each year. Other traumatic events include natural disasters, which include Hurricane Katrina that struck the Gulf Coast of the United States, leaving a wake of death and destruction in New Orleans, and the 2011 earthquake and tsunami that resulted in tens of thousands of deaths in Japan.Trauma: the result of severe distress and causes damage. Some stressors may be single incidents of relatively short duration, whereas others may occur over longer periods of time, resulting in prolonged exposure to the threatening stressor (Collins & Collins, 2005)Traumatic events fracture and shatter the very basic assumptions people have about themselves and the world they live in (Jannoff-Bulman, 1992). This is because we develop theories about how the world works. For example, we trust that most people will act in benevolent ways. We expect that more good will happen to us than bad and never expect someone to steal our car, or be sexually assaulted, or kill someone we love. We know these things happen but assume that they will never happen to us. When they do, it is often not just a recovery from the specific acts of a violent crime that is needed but a recovery that involves a reorganization and understanding of ourselves and the world around us (Jannoff-Bulman, 1992; Peterson, 2003).

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