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Learning Goal: I’m working on a psychology multi-part question and need an expla

by | Dec 30, 2021 | Psychology | 0 comments

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Learning Goal: I’m working on a psychology multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.ONLY WORK ON WEEK 7 disscussion 1 and WEEK 10 ASIGNMENTWeek 7: Conformity: Influencing BehaviorPeople conform to social pressures for various reasons; perhaps they seek acceptance and approval, or they may conform because that is their natural preference. Conformity can be a good thing (e.g., conforming to workplace protocols builds group identity and cohesiveness); however, sometimes it is hard to explain the motive to conform when conformity means enduring something unpleasant or doing something that harms others. Conformity to fashion styles is one of the many examples of how the behavior of others can influence our own. Social psychologists are always seeking to understand how this influence can shape the choices that individuals make.“Beauty is pain”—this is a popular expression that grossly understates problems associated with some fashion trends. For some, wearing high heels (especially stilettos) can increase knee and hip pain and can cause lower back pain, stress fractures, blisters, corns, hammertoes, bunions, and toenail fungus (Basha, Devi, & Priya, 2018). High heels can also permanently alter the structure of the foot and the rest of the body.Notwithstanding these problems, you will find stiletto heels are touted as the trendy footwear for women with fashion sense in most fashionable shoe stores. Indeed, millions of women everywhere wear high heels every day and love them. They are willing to spend a fortune and bear the pain. When asked why, the answer, more often than not, “they make me look thinner and my legs look longer.”This week, you will analyze social conformity to popular trends and examine the reasons for conforming to authority.Reference:Basha, F. Y. S., Devi, R. G., & Priya, A. J. (2018). A survey on comparative effects of wearing high heels among long-term and short-term users. Drug Invention Today, 10(11), 2244–2248.Learning ObjectivesStudents will:Analyze social conformity to popular trends
Analyze reasons for conforming to authority
Learning ResourcesRequired ReadingsAronson, E., Wilson, T. D., Akert, R. M., & Sommers, S. R. (Eds.). (2019). Social psychology (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Chapter 8, “Conformity and Obedience: Influencing Behavior”
Note: Viewing media and interactives embedded in the electronic version of this course text is not required for this course.Aagerup, U. (2018). Accessible luxury fashion brand building via fat discrimination. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 22(1), 2–16.doi:10.1108/JFMM-12-2016-0116Griskevicius, V., Goldstein, N. J., Mortensen, C. R., Cialdini, R. B., & Kenrick, D. T. (2006). Going along versus going alone: When fundamental motives facilitate strategic (non)conformity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(2), 281–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.91.2.281Doliński, D., Grzyb, T., Folwarczny, M., Grzybała, P., Krzyszycha, K., Martynowska, K., & Trojanowski, J. (2017). Would you deliver an electric shock in 2015? Obedience in the experimental paradigm developed by Stanley Milgram in the 50 years following the original studies. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(8), 927–933. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617693060Required Mediaeqivideos. (2007, December 22). Asch conformity experiment [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4MkcfJANote: This media program is approximately 4 minutes.Professor Ross. (2017, April 14). Brain games – conformity (Standing ovations) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ft7mwyiPyIoAssignment: Media Violence and Desensitization (Due Week 10)Desensitization is a well-documented consequence of years-long exposure to media violence. From early exposure, children—especially boys—learn that aggression pays off (Bushman, Gollwitzer, & Cruz, 2015). Aggression—especially if it means you “win” the game, “defeat” the adversary, or “force” a resolution to a conflict—earns the aggressor attention, praise, respect, reverence, adoration, money, and power. These are the rewards that often accompany aggression portrayed by the film industry (e.g., Die Hard, Die Hard 2, Die Hard With a Vengeance, Live Free or Die Hard, A Good Day to Die Hard), making it more likely that the aggressive behavior will persist. The number of films in this series is evidence of their popularity. From classical conditioning theory, we learn that bad behavior paired with rewards can make the bad behavior desirable; moreover, the prevalence of violence in the media, over time, normalizes it. Studies show that when exposed to violent films daily over a week’s time, participants rate films as less violent with each film viewed (Dexter, Penrod, Linz, & Saunders, 2006). This is evidence of desensitization.Desensitized people tend not to acknowledge the effects of media violence, because they don’t see that there’s a problem. However, a growing body of research finds that desensitized individuals downplay or tend not to acknowledge egregious harm done to others; because a steady diet of violent media normalizes violent behavior, injury suffered by people in real life does not seem like cause for concern (Vossen, Piotrowski, & Valkenburg, 2016). That’s the nature of desensitization, and that is indeed a problem.Convinced there is no harm in violent media consumption—that their behavioral tendencies will not have been influenced by it—desensitized consumers probably would not be interested in changing their media viewing habits (Funk, Baldacci, Pasold, & Baumgardner, 2004).For this Assignment, you will examine the concept of desensitization, methods used to increase the desirability of violence, and ways for parents to reduce aggression exhibited by their children.References:Bushman, B. J., Gollwitzer, M., & Cruz, C. (2015). There is broad consensus: Media researchers agree that violent media increases aggression in children, and pediatricians and parents agree. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 4(3), 200—214.Dexter, H. R., Penrod, S., Linz, D., & Saunders, D. (2006). Attributing responsibility to female victims after exposure to sexually violent films. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27(24), 2149–2171.Funk, J. B., Baldacci, H. B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: Is there desensitization? Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), 23–39.Vossen, H. G. M., Piotrowski, J. T., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2016). The Longitudinal relationship between media violence and empathy: Was it sympathy all along? Media Psychology, 20(2), 175–193.To PrepareSearch the Walden Library and/or the Internet for the definition of desensitization, its symptoms, and the process that creates it.
From your search and from the Learning Resources for this week, consider the ways that violence is presented and whether or not its presentation is appealing to children.
Also, from your search, consider how social psychology theory is applied to reduce aggression.
Assignment:Submit 3–5 pages, not including title page and reference page:Define desensitization and describes its process.
Identify and describe symptoms of desensitization.
Explain the methods used in the media to increase the desirability of violence. (i.e., what is rewarding the violence).
Suggest ways for parents to reduce aggression exhibited by their children.
In addition to the Learning Resources, search the Walden Library and/or Internet for peer-reviewed articles to support your Assignment. Use proper APA format and citations, including those in the Learning Resources.No Assignment is due this week. Submit your Media Violence and Desensitization Assignment by Day 7 of Week 10.Week 10: Affiliation, Attraction, and Prosocial BehaviorThe share of American adults who have never been married has reached a record high, according to a new study (Sterbenz, 2014). Many contemporary women find the circumstances of their lives compel them to change their behavior accordingly.In an era of women’s growing independence, for a man to be marriageable, it’s not enough to have a steady job. What women want in a partner isn’t especially well-measured. But it’s safe to guess that in our era of growing feminism the likely answers include more respect, greater equality, and a sense of partnership. Women are not rejecting marriage so much as they are rejecting old-fashioned marriage norms, where the man provides economically, and the woman is expected to be a stay-at-home wife and mother. If women don’t think men are interested in meeting these expectations, then women are going to be less interested in marriage (Marcotte, 2017).In addition, women without children are no longer anomalies, as the latest census data shows (Gray, 2015). According to the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey, in 2014, 47.6 percent of women between age 15 and 44 had never had children, up from 46.5 percent in 2012. This represents the highest percentage of childless women since the bureau started tracking that data in 1976. According to a recent report, in 2013 there were just 62.9 births for every 1,000 women between the ages of 15 and 44 in the U.S.—an all-time low (Cheadle, 2016).The decline in birthrates is not unique to the United States. Total fertility rates (i.e., the average number of children born during a woman’s reproductive years, 15–49) have decreased globally by about half since 1960 (Cheadle, 2016).These numbers confirm what most child-free women already know: Greater numbers of women are waiting longer to have children, or not having children at all.This week, you will explore how social psychology looks at the conditions that affect why people help, or neglect to help, others in certain situations. You will also apply social psychology theories to romantic relationships. References:Cheadle, C. (2016). Fertility rates keep dropping, and it’s going to hit the economy hard. Retrieved from https://www.visualcapitalist.com/fertility-rates-dropping-economy/.Sterbenz, C. (2014). Marriage rates are near their lowest levels in history—here’s why. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/causes-of-low-marriage-rates-2014-5.Marcotte, A. (2017). New study: Women don’t want to get married just because men make more money. Retrieved from https://www.salon.com/2017/05/17/new-study-women-d…Gray, E. (2015). A record percentage of women don’t have kids. Here’s why that make senseLearning ObjectivesStudents will:Apply social psychology theory and research to practices in mate selection
Analyze conditions that influence diffusion of responsibility
Analyze factors related to dehumanization and desensitization
Evaluate methods to reduce aggression and bullying
Learning ResourcesRequired ReadingsAronson, E., Wilson, T. D., Akert, R. M., & Sommers, S. R. (Eds.). (2019). Social psychology (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Chapter 10, “Attraction and Relationships: From Initial Impressions to Long-Term Intimacy”
Chapter 11, “Prosocial Behavior: Why Do People Help?”
Note: Viewing media and interactives embedded in the electronic version of this course text is not required for this course.Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0025589Latané, B., & Darley, J. M. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10(3), 215–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0026570 Required MediaCoolpsychologist. (2009, June 9). The bystander effect [Video file]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OSsPfbup0ac Note: This media program is approximately 3 minutes.Discussion 1: Gender Differences in Mate SelectionEvolutionary theory is often invoked to explain gender differences in mate selection. If the motive to reproduce explains men’s attraction to young (pretty) women and women’s attraction to financially stable men—as evolutionary psychologists claim—then how does it explain the increasing number of women who do not depend on men for financial stability because they are themselves economically independent?Or, how does one explain the increasing number of women who choose not to have children? If they do not plan to have children, then they certainly do not need a financially stable mate committed to the long-term care of offspring they do not intend to have. Or, how can evolutionary theory explain the increasing number of women who are not married yet have children?For this Discussion, you will examine conditions that influence diffusion of responsibility from the perspective of mate selection. To PrepareReview the Learning Resources for this week and examine how social psychology theories and research explain mate selection.
Compare evolutionary theory and social psychology theories as they apply to mate selection.
By Day 3Post whether or not the rules of attraction change for women as a function of their economic independence. Explain whether or not the rules of attraction are biological imperatives or cultural constructions, or both. Please use social psychology theory to refute claims based on evolutionary theory.By Day 5Respond to at least one of your colleagues in the following way:Informed by social psychology theory and research, explain how your colleague’s analysis might differ if applied cross-culturally.Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the social psychology theory and research. In addition to the Learning Resources, search the Walden Library and/or Internet for peer-reviewed articles to support your post and responses. Use proper APA format and citations, including those in the Learning Resources.Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you have learned and/or any insights that you have gained as a result of your colleagues’ comments. Submission and Grading InformationGrading CriteriaTo access your rubric:Week 10 Discussion 1 RubricPost by Day 3 and Respond by Day 5To participate in this Discussion:Week 10 Discussion 1Discussion 2: Diffusion of ResponsibilityFor this Discussion, you will examine conditions that influence diffusion of responsibility. Consider the following scenario of Brenda: Brenda was completing a 1-year internship in Baltimore. Luckily, she found an apartment not far from school. To get some exercise, acquaint herself with her new surroundings, and listen to her music, she walked to and from school every day. The 2-mile route took her past Johns Hopkins University, an extremely busy campus teeming with students and passersby. On her way home one day, music blasting in her ears, Brenda suddenly found herself head down in a muddy ravine right in front of the university’s main quad. Someone had come up from behind and pushed her…hard. She was not hurt, but at that moment, she was head down, feet sticking up in the air, in full view of everyone on the Hopkins’ campus. Attempting to right herself, she wondered why none of the many onlookers offered their assistance.To PrepareReview the Learning Resources for this week and examine how social psychology theory and research explain the diffusion of responsibility.
Consider the reasons why none of the onlookers stopped to help Brenda.
By Day 4Post an explanation about why none of the onlookers offered their assistance. Your explanation must be informed by social psychology theory and research. By Day 6Respond to at least one of your colleagues in the following way:If you were Brenda, how might you have solicited help from one of the many bystanders? Your explanation must be informed by social psychology theory and research.Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the social psychology theory and research. In addition to the Learning Resources, search the Walden Library and/or Internet for peer-reviewed articles to support your post and responses. Use proper APA format and citations, including those in the Learning Resources.Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you have learned and/or any insights that you have gained as a result of your colleagues’ comments. Submission and Grading InformationGrading CriteriaTo access your rubric:Week 10 Discussion 2 RubricPost by Day 4 and Respond by Day 6To participate in this Discussion:Week 10 Discussion 2Assignment: Media Violence and Desensitization (Continued From Week 9)Desensitization is a well-documented consequence of years-long exposure to media violence. From early exposure, children—especially boys—learn that aggression pays off (Bushman, Gollwitzer, & Cruz, 2015). Aggression—especially if it means you “win” the game, “defeat” the adversary, or “force” a resolution to a conflict—earns the aggressor attention, praise, respect, reverence, adoration, money, and power. These are the rewards that often accompany aggression portrayed by the film industry (e.g., Die Hard, Die Hard 2, Die Hard With a Vengeance, Live Free or Die Hard, A Good Day to Die Hard), making it more likely that the aggressive behavior will persist. The number of films in this series is evidence of their popularity. From classical conditioning theory, we learn that bad behavior paired with rewards can make the bad behavior desirable; moreover, the prevalence of violence in the media, over time, normalizes it. Studies show that when exposed to violent films daily over a week’s time, participants rate films as less violent with each film viewed (Dexter, Penrod, Linz, & Saunders, 2006). This is evidence of desensitization.Desensitized people tend not to acknowledge the effects of media violence, because they don’t see that there’s a problem. However, a growing body of research finds that desensitized individuals downplay or tend not to acknowledge egregious harm done to others; because a steady diet of violent media normalizes violent behavior, injury suffered by people in real life does not seem like cause for concern (Vossen, Piotrowski, & Valkenburg, 2016). That’s the nature of desensitization, and that is indeed a problem.Convinced there is no harm in violent media consumption—that their behavioral tendencies will not have been influenced by it—desensitized consumers probably would not be interested in changing their media viewing habits (Funk, Baldacci, Pasold, & Baumgardner, 2004).For this Assignment, you will examine the concept of desensitization, methods used to increase the desirability of violence, and ways for parents to reduce aggression exhibited by their children.References:Bushman, B. J., Gollwitzer, M., & Cruz, C. (2015). There is broad consensus: Media researchers agree that violent media increases aggression in children, and pediatricians and parents agree. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 4(3), 200—214.Dexter, H. R., Penrod, S., Linz, D., & Saunders, D. (2006). Attributing responsibility to female victims after exposure to sexually violent films. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27(24), 2149–2171.Funk, J. B., Baldacci, H. B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: Is there desensitization? Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), 23–39.Vossen, H. G. M., Piotrowski, J. T., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2016). The Longitudinal relationship between media violence and empathy: Was it sympathy all along? Media Psychology, 20(2), 175–193.To PrepareSearch the Walden Library and/or the Internet for the definition of desensitization, its symptoms, and the process that creates it.
From your search and from the Learning Resources for this week, consider the ways that violence is presented and whether or not its presentation is appealing to children.
Also, from your search, consider how social psychology theory is applied to reduce aggression.
Assignment:Submit 3–5 pages, not including title page and reference page:Define desensitization and describes its process.
Identify and describe symptoms of desensitization.
Explain the methods used in the media to increase the desirability of violence. (i.e., what is rewarding the violence).
Suggest ways for parents to reduce aggression exhibited by their children.
In addition to the Learning Resources, search the Walden Library and/or Internet for peer-reviewed articles to support your Assignment. Use proper APA format and citations, including those in the Learning Resources.By Day 7Submit your Media Violence and Desensitization Assignment. Submission and Grading InformationTo submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK10Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Week 10 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Week 10 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK10Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading CriteriaTo access your rubric:Week 10 Assignment RubricCheck Your Assignment Draft for AuthenticityTo check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 10 Assignment draft and review the originality report.Submit Your Assignment by Day 7To submit your Assignment:Week 10 AssignmentWeek in ReviewThis week, you compared evolutionary theory and social psychology theories as they apply to mate selection. You also considered a scenario for which you examined how social psychology theory and research explain the diffusion of responsibility.Next week, you will examine how social psychology theory and research explain the effects of peer influence on behavior, as well as consider persuasion strategies to defy peer pressure. Additionally, you will explore social loafing and consider motivation methods to use with a social loafer.

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