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Discuss DNA and RNA. How are they similar and different?

by | Jun 5, 2022 | Anthropology | 0 comments

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For each question, answer as thoroughly as possible if you want full points. Be sure to address all parts of the question. You will be evaluated on how well you answer as well as how well you can demonstrate your knowledge of class learning objectives and concepts (both in general and in detail.
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Discuss DNA and RNA. How are they similar and different? Discuss where in the cell each can be found, as well as the functions of each molecule (what does DNA do? What does RNA do?). Next, give a brief description of protein synthesis and how it works inside your cells. What steps are involved in going from DNA code to an actual protein? After reviewing the material in the modules describe the role RNA plays in the covid-19 vaccines. How can you explain that these vaccines do not alter our DNA or change our cells.
Hominids: Using your book and any notes from class, compare pre-Australopiths, Australopiths, and early members of the genus Homo (just EARLY Homo). When did each group live (from when to when?) and where were their fossils found? What features do they all have in common, and what specific traits set each group apart from one another? Given what you know about these groups, what can you infer about evolutionary trends and patterns in our ancestors? What type of environments might they have been adapting to? Finally what are the differences between Paranthropus (or Robust Australopiths) and other Australopiths?
Primates: Describe at least 4 traits, expected to be found in ALL PRIMATES, that can help you differentiate between a primate and other types of mammal. Next, describe at least two traits that help you differentiate between strepsirrhines and anthropoids, and two traits that can help you differentiate between platyrrhines and catarrhines. If you know you have a catarrhine, how can you tell if it’s a monkey or an ape? For this question you should refer to physical traits first, but you may include behaviors if you like. You can use skeletal differences, and/or morphological differences in living animals.
Comparative Anatomy: Discuss sexual dimorphism as it applies to humans. List and explain at least three specific skeletal traits observable in the cranium or post-cranial skeleton where males and females differ, and explain the differences. Now compare human sexual dimorphism to the degree of sexual dimorphism found in great apes (recall there are 4 species of living great apes besides humans- their sexual dimorphism may not all be the same). Do humans have more or less sexual dimorphism than apes in general? We know that sexual dimorphism in canine size and body size often correlates with social organization. What does Homo sapiens’ sexual dimorphism suggest about social organization? How do some or all of the traits you described reflect evolutionary trends?

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