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by | Jun 6, 2022 | Education & Teaching | 0 comments

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[04] Assignment 4
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Instructions
Directions: Be sure to make an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) pages in length; refer to the “Assignment Format” page for specific format requirements.
This assignment consists of two different parts that will show your learning of various course objectives from Lessons 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Part 1
Discuss the following concepts and provide an example (not given in the textbook) for each as it relates to the development and behavior of children.
Curriculum
Discrete Trial Training
Pivotal Response Training
Positive Behavior Support
Positive Reinforcement
Antecedent
Consequence
Contingencies
Time-Away
Punishment
Part 2
In order to acknowledge and understand the diversity of child-rearing beliefs and practices among families, you must first acknowledge and understand your own beliefs and practices about child-rearing. Exploring and analyzing your own history and its effects on your behavior may assist you in creating a better understanding and compassion for the families with which you are entrusted to support. Please review the section on Cultural Models and Child-Rearing Practices (page 63–66) and write a two-page reflection essay discussing your own child-rearing beliefs and practices and how these beliefs might influence your work with diverse families.
Discuss how these topics do or do not influence you today and how they might have an effect on your work with diverse families. Stay focused on relevant information concerning the implications for your work with young children and their families.
History: family history of ethnic origin, language(s), geography, and immigration
Growing up: where you grew up, pattern of movement or stability, and your family of origin structure
Your current family or living structure
Values of independence or interdependence
Discipline approaches
Attitudes toward disability
Influence of racism
Family structure
Parents’ roles
Caregiver-child communication
Medical practices
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Rubric Name: Assignment 4 Rubric
Print Rubric
CriteriaExemplarySatisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Poor
Unacceptable
Criterion Score
Description and examples of developmental-behavioral approaches
35 points
The student provides clear descriptions and examples for 10 of the developmental-behavioral approaches.
25 points
The student provides mostly clear descriptions and examples for 7-9 of the developmental-behavioral approaches.
15 points
The student provides adequate descriptions and example for 4-6 of the developmental-behavioral approaches.
5 points
The student provides poor descriptions and examples for 1-3 of the developmental-behavioral approaches.
0 points
Response does not meet any of the specified criteria.
Score of Description and examples of developmental-behavioral approaches,
/ 35
Summary on the diversity of family practices and childrearing
40 points
The student provides a clear summary and six clear examples about how their own experiences influence their beliefs.
30 points
The student provides a mostly clear summary and five mostly clear examples about how their own experiences influence their beliefs.
15 points
The student provides an adequate summary and four adequate example about how their own experiences influence their beliefs.
5 points
The student provides a poor summary and provides three or fewer examples about how their own experiences influence their beliefs.
0 points
Response does not meet any of the specified criteria.
Score of Summary on the diversity of family practices and childrearing,
/ 40
Mechanics
10 points
Student does not make any errors in grammar or spelling, especially those that distract the reader from the content.
8 points
Student makes 1-2 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.
5 points
Student makes 3-4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.
2 points
Student makes more than 4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.
0 points
Response does not meet any of the specified criteria.
Score of Mechanics,
/ 10
Format – APA Format, Citations, Organization, Transitions
15 points
The paper is written in proper APA and organizational format. All sources used for quotes and facts are credible and cited correctly. Excellent organization, including a variety of thoughtful transitions.
12 points
The paper is written in proper format with only 1-2 errors. All sources used for quotes and facts are credible, and most are cited correctly. Adequate organization includes a variety of appropriate transitions.
8 points
The paper is written in proper format with only 3-5 errors. Most sources used for quotes and facts are credible and cited correctly. Essay is poorly organized, but may include a few effective transitions.
5 points
The paper is not written in proper format. Many sources used for quotes and facts are less than credible (suspect) and/or are not cited correctly. Essay is disorganized and does not include effective transitions.
0 points
Response does not meet any of the specified criteria.
Score of Format – APA Format, Citations, Organization, Transitions,
/ 15
TotalScore of Assignment 4 Rubric,
/ 100Overall Score
A90 points minimum
B80 points minimum
C70 points minimum
D60 points minimum
F0 points minimum
Welcome to Lesson 4. It will be a very useful one! We are going to focus on the area of development that is commonly problematic for young children: learning to relate to others. That is not to say that young children who fight with other children are all exceptional children. They are not. As a special educator, it has been my experience that many young children arrive in preschool or child care in need of support in acquiring better socio/emotional skills. A smaller number of children are in need of special intervention. We will uncover why social and emotional development is so important in children’s overall development. To understand what social development means, it might be useful to think about what social skills actually are. What do you think they are?
Picture this: A toddler or preschooler screaming in the middle of a large group of people, possibly demanding an item he or she cannot have. We would all probably think that the child is not behaving appropriately (even if we were the child’s parents). The child is not acting correctly because the acceptable skill in that situation is not to scream. Social development is the acquisition of the social skills that are generally acceptable to most people. Most children learn them by watching others, practicing what they have seen others do, being reminded a lot by adults around them, and determining that this is what is expected of them. What about children who can’t watch and imitate well? What about children with other developmental problems? How might their social skills be affected? Children with developmental problems are not incapable of learning desirable social skills; however, they may need special or extra help in acquiring the skills. The ways in which children traditionally learn how to get along with peers, respond to adult direction, or even how they are able to adapt to another environment outside their most familiar one may simply not work for exceptional children.
A part of social development that we may not think is a learned skill is play. You might be asking yourself right now, “Don’t all children know how to play?” The answer to that question is actually “no.” Children do not naturally know how to play. Let’s take a step back for a minute and determine what exactly we mean by play. How would you define play? I am going to define play as any situation in which a child is interacting with his or her environment in an unstructured and pleasurable way. Does that sound like your definition of play?
Now let’s envision an early childhood classroom to help make this idea about teaching play more understandable. Picture a classroom of toddlers who have just learned how to walk. They are in a classroom for four-year-olds. If they wander over to the housekeeping area, what are they likely to do? They’ll probably pull items off the table and maybe bang them together. They may drop them on the floor. They may find some small items and dump them in a larger item. Will they open the pretend refrigerator and start cooking or set the table for a meal? They probably won’t.
Now picture the same four-year-old classroom filled with four-year-olds. What are they likely to do in the same housekeeping area? Do you think they might make a large meal of all the food they see, maybe put on some dress-up clothes, and perhaps invite others to dinner? What is the difference in these two scenes? The toddlers’ play is a lot simpler. They have not yet learned what to do with the pretend play items in the housekeeping area.
If there is a child with cognitive delays in the four-year-old group, he or she may be placing items in and out of the pots while the other four-year-olds are cooking them. The toddlers and the child with delays, who may think more like a toddler, have not yet learned how to play with the props in the house corner. If they don’t receive the opportunity to be involved in such pretend play, they may not be able to play in such an elaborate way. The four-year-olds who can make soup or pretend to be a waitress have learned some very involved play skills.
One way to help children learn play skills and social skills that involve other children and adults is to place children in a variety of settings in which those skills are displayed by others. Have I given you another convincing reason for inclusion? Children with delayed social skills can learn best from children with age-appropriate social skills. Children who go to the park, playgroups, the library, a playground, or an early childhood program have lots of opportunities to see and practice what it takes to get along with others. Besides providing opportunities to be with other children, another way to help children learn social skills is to teach them. Yes, we can teach social skills! We teach social skills when we specifically guide children to social situations and model for them how to get involved. Exceptional children may need us to teach them how to play and how to get along with others more often.
As you read, make sure you pay careful attention to Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. Understanding that a child goes through three unique stages is critical for you to support a child’s needs in the areas of problem solving and understanding feelings. You will also gain knowledge of Greenspan’s Model of Affective Development. Greenspan’s model has six distinct stages that relate to a child’s emotional development. It is imperative that teachers and parents learn to recognize the affective cues of a child, especially with an exceptional child. If a teacher or parent does not respond to the affective cue effectively, it may put the child at risk of not developing to the next stage. Remember that you are not alone. Collaborate with other teachers, the family, therapists, and physicians to best meet the needs of each child.
Lesson 4 will give you a few new thoughts as you widen your knowledge about exceptional children. Always keep in mind as we close in on the final lesson that no matter how different the learning needs of exceptional children, they are still—first and foremost—children. I know that this is a lot of information for you to take in, but I feel confident that you will be able to apply this new knowledge in your own classroom, with a fellow teacher, or with the families of exceptional children. You are halfway finished. Keep up the great work!

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