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Module 3 is all about genetics. Many of the antibiotic and antiviral medications of today use the principles of genetics to target bacteria and viruses.

by | Jun 6, 2022 | Microbiology | 0 comments

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Module 3 is all about genetics. Many of the antibiotic and antiviral medications of today use the principles of genetics to target bacteria and viruses. By targeting DNA replication, transcription, translation and/or the enzymes and proteins associated with these functions, the medications can selectively target the pathogen without harming the host. In this discussion post you will research and describe a medication that targets a component of genetics in its MOA (mechanism of action).
MOA Definition: In medicine, a term used to describe how a drug or other substance produces an effect in the body. For example, a drug’s mechanism of action could be how it affects a specific target in a cell, such as an enzyme, or a cell function, such as cell growth. Knowing the mechanism of action of a drug may help provide information about the safety of the drug and how it affects the body. It may also help identify the right dose of a drug and which patients are most likely to respond to treatment. Also called MOA. (definition from The National Cancer Institute)
Use reliable resources to research and learn about an antibiotic or antiviral whose mechanism of action inhibits/effects at least one of the following:
DNA replication
DNA transcription
DNA/RNA translation
Viral replication processes
Mutation of microbial/viral DNA or RNA
The following questions should be answered when discussing your drug and may be listed by question.
Full name of the drug and its manufacturer.
The mechanism of action (MOA) of the drug. This should be a detailed answer with explanation of what the drug does to inhibit bacteria or viral pathogens. Include the following information in this explanation of the drugs MOA.What enzyme/protein or pathway does it affect.
What is the drugs effect and how does that inhibit the pathogen growth or result in direct death
What disease or condition is the drug used for?
Are there multiple uses for the drug and what are they?If the drug is an antibiotic, is it narrow spectrum or broad spectrum?
If it is an antiviral, does it affect host cell genetic machinery?
Does the drug pose any risks to the patient taking it and what are they. (Please DO NOT just list common side effects. Be specific about what causes those side effects)
The title of your post must include the name of the drug you are researching for easy reference by others.
All research MUST include references listed in MLA format. (Citation Generation Tool Click Here)
Copying and pasting information from a manufacturer or other website is NOT acceptable and will result in a 0 for the assignment. All work must written in your own words and explained in a clear and concise way.
No more than 2 people may research the same drug. This means the same drug may not appear on the discussion board more than twice. The first two posts of the same drug will receive the credit. Any post after the first two (2) will have a point deduction. (The sooner you complete your research, the better).After posting your research, you must respond to at least one other student’s research. You may use the video note tool to record your response to another student. Include any sources you may have used in the same post (after adding your video note, list your resources in the reply). All sources must be added to your post in MLA format.
This is a sample post to assist you with creating your own. The sample drug may not be used for your own post.
Novobiocin is a broad spectrum antibiotic that is also known as albamycin or cathmycin. It is derived from actinomycetes ( Streptomyces).
Novobiocin is no longer used in humans but is used in the veterinary industry (mostly cattle) and for antibiotic research. It is most effective against gram positive organisms and most gram negative organisms have become resistant.
It is produced by multiple veterinary pharmaceutical companies (Merck) and is not under a patent.
Novobiocin disrupts DNA replication by binding to topoisomerase. It binds to the alpha subunit of the protein, preventing it from binding to DNA during the replication process and thereby inhibiting the replication complex from binding DNA at all. This is a bacteriostatic drug, which means it inhibits bacterial growth but does not directly kill the cells.
Novobiocin is used primarily for topical applications on cattle and is sometimes mixed with tetracycline due to synergistic (complementary) effects of the two drugs together.
Novobiocin is no longer used in humans due to toxicity to bone marrow leading to leukopenia ( low WBC counts). Other reactions include rshes, nausea, anemia, and diarrhea.
Sources:
Ffpm(Hon), Aronson Jeffrey Ma DPhil MBChB Frcp FBPharmacolS. Meyler’s Side Effects of Drugs: The International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. 16th ed., Elsevier Science, 2015.
Constable BVSc MS PhD Dipl ACVIM, Peter D., et al. Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs and Goats – Two-Volume Set. 11th ed., Saunders Ltd., 2017.

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