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Discuss the need for institutional review boards (IRBs). How can they potentially affect or impact a study? Give a couple of examples [minimum 2].
his week’s lesson will cover chapters 11 to 13, and focus on rigor in qualitative research, mixed designs and mixed methods research, and ethics in research.
Topics covered include credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability, mixed methods designs, the history of ethics in research, and principles of ethical conduct for humans and animals in research.
After completing this lesson, you are expected to:
• Describe the concept of rigor in qualitative research.
• Classify mixed methods designs.
• Explain how to analyze data and report findings in mixed methods research.
• Describe issues related to using mixed methods research.
• Define ethics in research.
Discuss the need for institutional review boards (IRBs). How can they potentially affect or impact a study? Give a couple of examples [minimum 2].
Welcome to week 3. Thank you for the submissions of your assignments. Please note any comments on your papers. Some comments were mainly for guidance. Continue to refer to your APA 7th edition manual. Understand if you plan to seek higher education (DNP, Ph.D. or Ed.D. studies) or perhaps begin to publish, editors and future professors will have stringent guidelines for research practice.
Research is one of those necessary requirements for advanced practice nursing, regardless of the specialty or friend you are entering, you will encounter and be required to conduct or participate in research initiatives.
This week’s lesson will cover chapters 11 to 13, and focus on rigor in qualitative research, mixed designs and mixed methods research, and ethics in research. Topics covered include credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability, mixed methods designs, the history of ethics in research, and principles of ethical conduct for humans and animals in research.
After completing this lesson, you are expected to:
• Describe the concept of rigor in qualitative research.
• Classify mixed methods designs.
• Explain how to analysis data and report findings in mixed methods research.
• Describe issues related to using mixed methods research.
• Define ethics in research.
***If you have not heard it before, I will say it now. There is an old saying which states, “All research is flawed.” There is an element of truth to that saying as research is conducted by humans, and we are subject to error. That is it is important to have checks and balances to ensure the best possible outcomes in our research trajectory.
Research Validity (Is it true to the intended purpose?)
Progress has been gained from the initial concept of a “useless face validity” extending to examining the sensitivity and specificity of screening an diagnostic measures, When one selects a measure in their research endeavors, make certain that the validity has been thoroughly evaluated (Tappen, 2021).
Article: A Primer on the Validity of Assessment Instruments
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3184912/
Link: How sound is your research? A main premise of validity.
http://linguistics.byu.edu/faculty/henrichsen/ResearchMethods/RM_2_18.html
Video: Types of Validity

Trustworthiness of Qualitative Research (The quality of your qualitative research is essential to what it is for both qualitative and quantitative research studies.)
One can envision difficulty imagining a nurse scholar or advanced practice nurse mitigating the importance of quality in research as not being significant. The principle investigator or researcher may select principles, criteria or strategies based on the decision or the extent of which scientific adequacy, systematicity, trustworthiness, transparency, or qualities of the researcher, theoretical consistency, aesthesis, literary qualities, and stimulation of social action are desire. This judgment should be based upon the purpose of the study, its philosophical roots, and the approach utilized (Tappen, 2021).
Article: Trustworthiness of Research (Start with section 2, Quantitative Research)

Trustworthiness of Research


Link: Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/cbe6/70d35e449ceed731466c316cd273032b28ca.pdf
Video: Trustworthiness and Validity in Qualitative Research Design

Video: The quality of qualitative research

Ethical Issues and Consent and Participant Recruitment
Thank you for your contributions to last week’s discussion board. I appreciate your contributions to our class. Your hard work and diligence are always appreciated. Please continue the excellent work that you are doing. We are a little bit over halfway to our goal of course completion.
This week we will explore some of the ethical issues that take place in research and recruit participants for your studies.
Why should we have a concern regarding ethical issues in research? What is the significance of obtaining participant consent prior to their engagement in any study?
In the past, you may have heard me mentioned that all research is flawed. While this may be true, the discrepancies noted should never be intentional in research. Yes, human error does occur, but issues such as plagiarism, falsification of data, mistreatment of participants, and other atrocities should never occur. Unfortunately, the Nuremberg Experiment, the Tuskegee Experiment, and the Guatemala Study were all crimes that were conducted in the name of research. Altruism, benevolence, informed consent, participant rights, ethical treatment are all required traits or behaviors that researchers should be aware of and implement.
Assignments
Website Link: Click on the following link to review one example of unethical research, this story reflects the Tuskegee Experiment.
https://www.history.com/news/the-infamous-40-year-tuskegee-study
Please review the videos below regarding research ethics.
Video: Research Ethics
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zbi7nIbAuMQ
Video: Ethics: Human Subject Research

Video: How IRBs Protect Human Research Participants

Article Link: Institutional Review Boards – Purpose and Challenges
An IRB has the authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove research. This group review serves an important role in the protection of the rights and welfare of human research subjects.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631034/
Participant Recruitment for Research
There are several methods for obtaining participants for your studies. Please remember that not all your participants that are recruited will be eligible to participate in your research studies. They may be excluded based on your criteria. A prime example would be if you are conducting a study involving Asian females, you would have to exclude European males from the study, this is based on criteria, not discrimination.
https://digital.ahrq.gov/ahrq-funded-projects/emerging-lessons/participant-recruitment-research
Sample Participant Informed Consent
The following link provides an example of a sample participant’s informed consent. Please note the components that are contained within. Many schools have their own version for the students to utilize in research. If this became a requirement in your research paper, this form would be included in the appendices section, following your reference section, and would be included in your paper’s table of contents.
https://www.tcd.ie/swsp/assets/pdf/Participant%20consent%20form%20template.pdf
Take a moment to think about how you would incorporate the principles of ethics into your research. Would you willingly violate ethical principles to get your papers published or complete your studies?
How would you inform your participants regarding their rights? What would you do if you discover that a participant does not comprehend the terms of the agreement or has a language barrier? We are responsible for the well-being of our participants. This data must be included on your IRB initial application, also the methodology section of your papers much include this data.
It is also important for us to protect research data which must be secured both during and after the study. It is also our responsibility to inform the IRB that the study has been concluded and documents must be completed to reflect this change.

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